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Brewing from A-Z

Everything you've always wanted to know about beer. Paulaner introduces you to the secrets of the brewing process. In our online lexicon you will find more than one hundred keywords circling around the main topic of "beer". The alphabetic index will help you navigate through the lexicon.

Alcohol content
The alcohol content of a beer depends on the original wort content. About half of the original wort is transformed into alcohol by fermentation (balling formula: (original wort – remaining extract): 2). For example, a normal beer has an alcohol content of about 4,9 to 6,0 vol. %, Pils about 4,9 vol. % and Export 5,5 vol. %.

Amylase
Enzymes, which transform the starch into malt sugar during the production of the wort.

Annual beer consumption
Germans drink around 107 litres of beer per person on average every year. In European comparison, Czechs and Austrians drink more beer per head than Germans.

Aristoteles
Philosopher and son of a doctor. He researched the effects of excessive beer and wine consumption and found out, that people fall over backwards after drinking too much beer. Paradoxically, excessive wine consumption makes people fall sideways.

Aroma
The beer aroma is determined by many different factors. The choice of ingredients is equally important as the type of yeast used, the fermentation process and the maturing process leading up to filling.

Ator-beers
Ator-beers are strong beers which end in “ator”, an example of which is Salvator, Animator or Kulminator. The Salvator is the inspiration for all strong beers. Paulaner has exclusive rights to this name.

Barley

According to the German Purity Law, this is one of the four ingredients of beer. Double summer barley is ideal for brewing because of its low albumen content. It is transformed by gestation and drying into malt and is then used in the brewing process.

Bavarian Purity Law
The people of Munich were always keen on maintaining the purity of their beer. In 1487 the first food law in the world passed, which is still operative today. The Munich Law of Purity. Some time later, in 1516, a stronger version followed, the Bavarian Law of Purity, which is still in force today. It was decreed by Duke Wilhelm IV of Bavaria and states that beer may be brewed only using malt, hops and water. Yeast may also be used, but it was unknown at the time. Instead, brewers relied on the natural yeast in the air and that which gathered in the bottom of the fermenting vessels.

Beer care
Bottled beer should be stored in a cool place away from sunlight, which can effect the flavour. Beer glasses must be absolutely fat-free, because fat destroys the foam head and makes the beer go flat. The glass should be rinsed with clear water and not wiped with a cloth. Draught beer from the barrel needs special treatment. After delivery, the barrel should be allowed to rest to avoid excessive foaming when the barrel is opened. The temperature and opening technique are very important for a good beer. The ideal temperature is around 6-8°C.

Beer colour
The colour of beer is determined by the malt used. For dark beers, dark or roasted malts are used. They are produced by special malting and kiln drying procedures.

Beer from the barrel
About 20 % of German beer production is filled into barrels. At Paulaner the percentage is about 30 %.  

Beer mat
A coaster for beer mugs or glasses, originally made from felt, nowadays made of paper; some printed beer mats are collectors’ items.

Beergarden
The beergarden is the place in Munich where the Munich way of life can be enjoyed to the fullest. Naturally, a cool Paulaner Hefe-Weißbier is part of this. Originally, the beergardens were counters located above the brewery storage cellars. Because of the strict regulations in force, the visitors had to provide their own food. Even today, you are allowed to bring your own food to the beergarden.

Beer types
Beers are divided into top- and bottom-fermenting types. We differentiate between beers with a low wort content (< 7 %), Schankbier (7 to less than 11 %), Vollbier (11 to less than 16 %) and Starkbier (more than 16 %).

Bitters
Bitter particles are found in hops, which give the beer a certain light bitter aroma.

Bock beer
Bock beer is a strong beer with at least 16 % original wort. There are light and dark bock beer types.

Bottom-fermenting
Beers, which are brewed with bottom-fermenting yeast, e.g. Pils, Export, Doppelbock, Helles, Märzen and Dunkel. As the fermentation process must be carried out at a temperature between 4 to 9°C, it was only possible to brew these beers all year round after the invention of the refrigerator in 1876. Before this time, this brewing method could only be used in the winter months and couldn't normally be used after the month of March.

Brewery
In Germany, there are about 1300 breweries, in which about 6000 types of beer are brewed. Many have a long tradition of brewing. The Paulaner brewery was officially first recorded in 1634.

Brewhouse
The brewhouse contains the mash containers, the mash pan, the lauter containers and the wort pan. Water is used to dissolve the ingredients of the malt from the crushed malt and to produce sugar. The liquid from the draff (wort) is boiled together with the hops.

Brewing barley
The best brewing barley is double brewing barley. The brewer judges the barley by testing the smell, size and shape of the seeds etc., the state of the spelts and the flour body as well as its germination potential and albumen content etc.

Brewing water
For the production of one hectolitre of beer (100 litres) about 350 litres of water are needed. In comparison to the 1980s they still needed about 900 litres. The brewing water needs to meet very high quality standards. It must taste good, must not smell, must be low in chalk content, clear and free from foreign bodies; only a certain amount of some salt may be included. The quality of the brewing water is essential for the quality of the beer. Paulaner brewing water comes from our own wells from a depth of 240 metres.

Calcium
Calcium- and magnesium carbonate determine the hardness of the water and, therefore, the taste of the beer.

Calories
The general belief, that beer contains many calories is wrong. Beer has about 450 kcal per litre, depending on the type of beer. Only mineral water, coffee and tea (without milk and sugar) have less calories. Milk has 600 calories per litre, wine has 700 and spirits have up to 3000 calories.

Carbon dioxide
This is produced during fermentation. When the bottles or barrels are filled, carbon dioxide reduces foaming under pressure. Carbon dioxide is important for the fresh taste and the head of foam.

Cooling the wort
After boiling, the wort must be cooled at a suitable temperature for fermentation.

Crushing
Crushing the malt in special grinders.

Derblecken
When the first barrels of Salvator are opened at the Munich Nockherberg, politicians are traditionally parodied by well-known cabaret artists. It is considered an honour for a politician to be “derbleckt”.

Diet beer
A low carbohydrate beer, which is suitable for diabetics. The amount of alcohol may not exceed that of comparable beers. Bread units: 0,06 / 100 ml, total glucose: 0,75 g / 100 ml, consumable carbohydrate: 0,80 g / 100 ml.

Double bock
A strong dark beer with at least 18 % original wort. The most famous double bock is the Paulaner Salvator, the grandfather of all Ator-beers.

Draff
The draff is the remainder of the malt, which remains in the lauter container after the wort is poured out. It is used as a nutritional animal fodder.

Drinking temperature
The ideal drinking temperature for beer is between 7 and 9°C. Beer should neither be warmed nor cooled too fast.

Export
Export beer is a bottom-fermenting beer with an original wort content of at least 12 %. Because of the lower hop content Export beer is less bitter than a Pils.

Extract
All the absorbed contents, which pass from the malt into the wort (malt, sugar and dextrin).

Fastenbier (=Salvator)
A particularly nutritious beer brewed by the monks during Lent. The use of more malt means that the beer contains more alcohol and calories, (Salvator 71 kcal / 100 ml), which is why it is also known as “liquid bread”.

Fermentation
Yeast converts the malt sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide. Fermentation lasts for 6 to 7 days with bottom-fermenting beer and 3 to 4 days with top-fermenting beer.

Filling
When the beer is matured, it is filtered and filled into barrels, cans or bottles. This is done very quickly. Some of our filling lines fill, seal and label up to 65000 bottles in an hour. Only special, slightly-opaque beers, e.g. our Paulaner Hefe-Weißbier are filled without being filtered.

Foam
The head of foam is produced by carbon dioxide, which reacts in combination with albumen when poured into the glass.

Foreign bodies
Beer is a natural product. Especially at the beginning of the fermentation process, the wort may be exposed to wild yeast cultures and various bacteria, because these thrive under similar conditions to beer yeast. These foreign organisms can effect the flavour and shelf life or even ruin the beer. That is why attention to detail and hygiene is Paulaner’s motto.

Gambrinus
The patron saint of brewers. His exact origins are unknown. Many authors describe him as a Prince of Burgundy in the 13th century with the name Jan Primus, others claim he was King of Flanders and Brabant in the 16th century.

Germination
The barley must germinate to produce enzymes, which are needed for the brewing process.

Green malt
Barley is transformed into green malt by soaking and gestation. This is then dried on the “Darre”.

Grist
Malt, which has been ground in the chaff grinder.

Hansen, Emil Christian
Emil Christian Hansen first isolated the various yeast cultures scientifically. In 1881 he cultivated them individually.

Hops
Hops grow on the vine up to 7 or 8 metres high. Most hops in Germany grow in the area known as the Hallertau. For brewing purposes the female flowers or "Dolden" of cultivated hops are used. The bitter components and the aroma are important. Hops also give the beer its good shelf life and the typical dry taste. The Hallertauer aroma hops is particularly famous.

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Keg
A cylindrical beer barrel, which is easy to connect and disconnect. When disconnected, the carbon dioxide stays under pressure in the barrel, which prevents the rest of the beer from drying out and helps to avoid germs developing in the keg.

Kieselgur
Fine powder from the outer shells of ancient sweet and salt water algae.  Kieselgur is an excellent filter for opaque beer. The suspended opacity (e.g. yeast) stays in the filter and the crystal clear beer runs into the tank.

Kiln drying
This is the method used to dry the germinated barley.

Lautering
After mashing, the wort is separated from the draff into liquid and solids in the lauter tun.

Light beer
Alcohol- and calorie-reduced beer. As well as the non-alcoholic specialty beers, Paulaner also offers the Hefe-Weißbier Leicht and the Münchner Hell Leicht.

Light influence
Strong lighting or sunshine can give beer an unpleasant taste. Brown bottles offer good protection against this. Green bottles are not suitable for beer storage as they let too much UV light through the bottle.

Linde, Carl von
Carl von Linde discovered the refrigerator. This made brewing beer possible all year round. The oldest brewery refrigerator can be seen in the Paulaner brewery and was manufactured in 1881.

Low alcohol
A beer is described as low alcohol when it has a maximum alcohol content of 1.2 vol. %.

Lupulin
The most important ingredient of the hop bloom. It contains the aroma and bitter components.

Märzen
Before the invention of the refrigerator, beer could only be brewed up until March. To conserve it in the summer months, it was brewed stronger and with more hops. This March beer was served at festivals in the autumn and was the original beer, which was served at the Oktoberfest.

Malt
In order to be able to use barley, wheat and rye for brewing, they are transformed into brewing malt. The seeds are germinated and then dried.
Under germination, important enzymes are produced, which allow starch to be converted to malt sugar.

Mash
Mash is the mixture of crushed malt and water. By controlling the temperature, it is possible to dissolve the malt ingredients and e.g. transform starch into sugar.

Maturing fermentation
The young beer ferments under pressure in the lager tanks and matures. The carbon dioxide produced is absorbed into the beer.

Micro brewery
A pub or restaurant with its own brewery like the Paulaner Bräuhaus in Munich or even a mini brewery without public rooms.

Measures in Bavaria
1 Mass = 1 litre
1 Halbe = 0,5 litre
1 Schnitt or Pfiff = 0,25 litre

Monastic brewery
Monasteries have had a big influence on the art of brewing. In ancient times, nearly every monastery had its own brewery. Even the Paulaner brewery was a monastic brewery up until the secularisation at the end of the 18th century. The Paulaner monks are members of an Italian religious order, who lived by the rules of the holy Francesco de Paola. The name Paulaner comes from the place where he was born. In 1627, some members of the order moved to the Munich monastery of Kloster Neudeck ob der Au.

Non-alcoholic
Only beers with less than 0,5 vol. % alcohol can be described as alcohol-free.

Opacity
Opacity is caused by yeast, tannin and albumen particles. Filtration can be used to remove these substances.

Original wort
The extract contents of the wort, or the dissolved contents such as sugar and albumen. By percentage weight, fermentation of the original wort produces ca. 33 % alcohol, 33 % carbon dioxide and 33 % remaining extract.

Oxygen
After fermentation of the beer, the amount of oxygen absorbed must be kept to as little as possible, as it would cause the beer to age and decline in quality much quicker.

pH value
A term to express the acid or alkali content of a solution. pH values of less than 7 indicate acidity, values over 7 indicate alkaline.

Pils
The name given to a beer with a strong taste of hops. Pils was originally brewed only in the area around Pilsen in the Czech Republic (formerly Bohemia).

Pitching
The practice of sealing wooden barrels with pitch in order to seal pores and joints in the wood. In addition, the pitch prevents the escape of carbon dioxide and provides an internal surface to the barrel, which is smooth and easy to clean.

Production
This is the annual production of beer from a brewery in a one-year period. The unit of measure is hectolitre (hl). One hectolitre equals 100 litres. In 1997 in Germany 114,8 million hectolitres of beer were brewed. Paulaner’s current production is 2,3 million hectolitres. Together with Hacker-Pschorr, AuerBräu and Thurn und Taxis, the Paulaner Group produces around 3 million hectolitres.

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Steeping
Water is added to the brewing cereal in order to initiate germination by soaking.

Saccharometer
A device to measure the amount of extract and the concentration of the wort.

Salvator
The first strong beer brewed by the Paulaner monks. Every year it was brewed on the same day to commemorate the founder of the order, Franz von Paola on the 2nd of April. The well-proven recipe has remained
virtually unchanged until today. It was originally called Holy Father beer. The popular name was Salvator and was granted a registered trade mark in Berlin in 1896. The original Salvator is only brewed by Paulaner.

Salvator tasting
Lent marks the beginning of the strong beer season. The Salvator tasting relates to the Lent period, as the Paulaner monks brewed it as an additional source of nutrition (“liquid does not break fasting”). It is a 200 year old tradition that the Prince of the region has the right to taste the first Mass or 1 litre glass of Salvator. Even today, it is presented to him accompanied by the words: “Salve pater patriae! Bibas, princeps optime!” More malt is used to give Salvator more alcohol and more calories (79 kcal / 100 ml). That’s why strong beer is also known as “liquid bread”.

Schankbier
Freshly-drawn beer with an original wort of 7-11 %.

Spundung
During secondary fermentation the beer is held under constant, exact pressure to ensure that the desired amount of carbon dioxide is absorbed into the beer.

Starch
All cereal crops contain starch. Under favourable conditions the starch is converted into fermentable sugar by enzymes.

Starkbier (also: bock beer)
Dark or light beers, which have an original wort content of at least 16 %. The alcohol makes up between 6,5 and 10 % vol. Our Paulaner Salvator has an original wort of 18,3 %.

Starting
Starting the process of fermentation, by which the yeast is added to the wort.

Storage
After fermentation, the beer is stored in the Lager cellar. It stays there for several weeks until reaching maturity.

Sugar conversion
Converting the malt starch to sugar by the action of enzymes at around 60-62°C.

Top-fermenting
Beers, which are brewed with top-fermenting yeast, e.g. Weissbier, Kölsch and Altbier. Fermentation occurs at around 15-24°C. The yeast cells float to the top of the beer at the end of fermentation.

Trub
The albumen, which is produced during wort boiling. This is removed before fermentation.

Unfiltered

Unfiltered, slightly opaque beer with a higher content of valuable vitamins, minerals and trace elements.

Vitamins
Beer contains many vitamins, above all, B-vitamins. One litre of beer has an average content of ca. 0,04 mg vitamin B1, 0,3 to 0,4 mg vitamin B2, 0,47 to 0,82 mg vitamin B6, 0,5 mg biotin, 6,3 to 8,8 mg nicotinacid, 0,8 mg folic acid and 0,9 to 1,1 mg panthothin acid.

Vollbier
Vollbier has an original wort of 11 to 15,99 %. Roughly 96 % of all German beers are Vollbiere.

Weihenstephan
Weihenstephan is the home of the faculty of brewing science of the Technical University of Munich. It is the oldest and most influential research and educational establishment for brewing in the world.

Weissbier
Weissbier is a top-fermenting beer. In the brewing process both barley and wheat malts (at least 50 %) are used.

Wort
Soluble substances which are taken from the malt are boiled together with hops in the wort pan. This has a germicidal effect and allows the wort value to be achieved, bitter substances from the hops are made soluble, colour is added, and undesirable aromas are removed (DMS).

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Yeast
A monocellular budding fungus. In brewing we differentiate between
bottom-fermenting and top-fermenting yeast. Yeast starts off the fermentation process. Top-fermenting yeast floats to the top during fermentation and bottom-fermenting yeast sinks to the bottom of the brewing vessel.

Young beer
After the main fermentation, the beer is called “young” or “green beer”. It is stored for 3 to 8 weeks in the brewery cellars before bottling takes place.

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